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On these pages the research group »Research on Teachers and Teacher Education« informs about current and finished research projects.



Leadership in German Schools (LineS2020)

The relevance of school leadership for school development and for the performance of students is recognized internationally. Although there are single empirical studies on school leadership in Germany, comprehensive findings on the careers of school leaders are still lacking. For example, questions about what makes the position of a principal attractive to teachers, why school principals take this position, and what reasons speak against remaining in that position have not been sufficiently researched in the German-speaking world. This is particularly relevant against the background of an increasing lack of qualified applications for the position and in view of the frequent changes of school leaders. The project therefore raises the question of what makes the position of a school principal (in)attractive and what career motives and job change intentions school principals have. It takes a variety of individual and structural factors into account, as well as the role of professional support (e.g. mentoring) and qualification (professionalisation). In addition, the study examines how these factors are related to the double demand on school administrators to manage schools in a stable and efficient way and to make schools adaptable and flexible through school development (perspective of ambidexterity). The study is based on a representative data set (n = 405) of school leaders at general schools in Germany, which was collected via the field service provider forsa GmbH in an online survey. The project uses a measurement repetition design to repeatedly survey the participating school leaders at intervals of several years. It is a cooperative project between Prof. Dr. Colin Cramer and Dr. Jana Groß Ophoff (Tübingen), PD Dr. Marcus Pietsch (Lüneburg) and Prof. Dr. Pierre Tulowitzki (Windisch, Switzerland).


Cramer, C., Groß Ophoff, J., Pietsch, M., & Tulowitzki, P. (2021). Corona-Pandemie aus Sicht von Schulleitungen – Kurzbericht zur Studie.

Cramer, C., Groß Ophoff, J., Pietsch, M., & Tulowitzki, P. (2021). Schulleitung in Deutschland. Repräsentative Befunde zur Attraktivität, zu Karrieremotiven und zu Arbeitsplatzwechselabsichten. Die Deutsche Schule, 113(2), 132–148.

Pietsch, M., Tulowitzki, P., & Cramer, C. (2020). Principals between exploitation and exploration: Results of a nationwide study on ambidexterity of school leaders. Educational Management Administration & Leadership.

Cramer, C., Groß Ophoff, J., Pietsch, M., & Tulowitzki, P. (2020). Schulleitungen in Deutschland – Kurzbericht zur Studie.





Dr. Colin Cramer is professor of research on teachers and teacher education with special emphasis on subject-matter teaching and learning. He is member of the ›Institute of Education‹ as well as of the ›Tuebingen School of Education‹. His research interests are the teaching profession and the professionalisation in teacher education.


Research on teachers and teacher education has the aim to understand who teachers and school leaders are, under which circumstances they work and how they can be prepared for their tasks appropriately in initial teacher education as well as in further professional development.


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Tübingen School of Education

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Research – Relevance – Responsibility. Exzellenz in der Lehrerbildung – Etablierung innovativer Strukturen an der Tübingen School of Education (TüSE) wird im Rahmen der gemeinsamen Qualitätsoffensive Lehrerbildung von Bund und Ländern aus Mitteln des Bundesministeriums für Bildung und Forschung gefördert.

Get in Touch

+49 (0)7071 29-75523
(Gabriela Knuth, Secretary)
+49 (0)7071 29-72729
(Prof. Cramer)


Prof. Dr. Colin Cramer
University of Tuebingen
Tuebingen School of Education
Wilhelmstrasse 31 | Room 204
72074 Tuebingen

Office Hours:
Wednesday 14.15 to 15.45
(Registration via Email required)